Page 129 - The Secrets Of Vinegar
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            long voyage. In India, the meat was cooked using local spices, and dishes such as pork vindaloo6 were created.
The Guild of Vinegar and Mustard Makers
The demand for vinegar was so great during the Middle Ages that making vinegar finally became a true profession, and a small industry developed around it. In 1394, French, Italian, and Spanish vinegar and mustard makers joined together to form an exclusive guild. To become members, these culinary artists took an oath, swearing never to reveal the secrets of the trade. The vinegar maker’s guild of Orleans controlled the fabrication and trade of vinegar, verjuice and mustard.7 In 1580, Henry III issued a letters patent declaring the profession of vinegar and mustard makers to be a “sworn profession in the city and its suburbs.”
But up until the 17th century, vinegar was just a by-product of wine and beer. Orleans was a major river port city and half of all French vinegar was produced there, even though the city itself didn’t have a vineyard. Shipwrecks and fluctuating water flow on the Loire River made shipping between Angers, Touraine and Paris time-consuming and arduous. Wines shipped on this route often turned sour because of the heat and navigation conditions, and sometimes became unpalatable by the time they reached the Port of Orleans. This sour wine would be offloaded at Orleans to be made into vinegar. Production gradually shifted to the city of Dijon. There, Jean Naigeon revolutionized the formula
for strong mustard by replacing verjuice (the sour juice of unripe grapes) with vinegar, and the world-famous Dijon mustard was born. Made from hulled black mustard seeds blended with white wine vinegar and spices, Dijon mustard is now protected by an appellation d’origine controlée obtained September 10, 1937.
  6 “Vindaloo” comes from “vinha d’alhos,” a basic Portuguese marinade made with white wine, garlic, bay leaves, and paprika.
7 Three thousand years ago, the Chinese were the first to blend ground mustard seeds with an acidic juice extracted from grapes to create the condiment we now know as mustard. But it was during the lavish celebrations held by the dukes of Burgundy that the city of Dijon became synonymous with the mustard, making the condiment a symbol of luxury and sophistication.

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