Page 154 - Dutch Asiatic Shipping Volume 1
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 VOC ships, to be taken over by a small ship or cruiser which awaited the homeward fleet at the Noord Island near Strait Sunda.
But the organization after 1756 was cast in a quite different mould. Management of trade and shipping to China was put in the hands of a separate committee, which decided on numbers of ships, money and goods to be sent out, and on the volume of imports. These decisions were taken therefore outside the meetings of the Heren Zeventien and unconnected with decisions on equipment and investments taken there. NaturallyBata- via's influence on this trade was also eliminated. This was apparent in the way in which the trade was now administered in Batavia. Goods and money destined for Canton were no longer accounted for in the book-keeping in Asia. This only recorded the valueof whatever was sent to China from Batavia itself, and of the goods received at Batavia from Canton. The balance always showed the home country in credit, i.e. Batavia's cargoes to Canton were of higher value than those received from there, and this credit was accounted in the books in the same way as cargoes sent home from Batavia.8 6
For the ships destined for Canton, dropping anchor in the Macao roadstead signified the end of the voyage. The master would contact the Chinese customs at Macao to obtain a pass or verlofbrief. Sometimes a carga came on board, who after concluding the business in Canton had spent the quiet period in Macao. Then the ship could sail up river to Canton, taking great care in negotiating the narrows of 'Bocca Tigris'. With the aid of small ships the East Indiamen were pulled along to the Whampoa roadstead. There they anchored at quite a distance from Canton. Officers and crew remained on board during the period at anchor, only the cargo's and a few clerks went to Canton. In the bay of Whampoa, on the 'Denen of Franseneiland' was a storage space for equipment and ballast materials and also - not without significance for the crews of the various European ships - an inn. After unloading, which could not be started until after Chinese customs had measured the holds, the crew spent their time cleaning the ship. Where necessary small repairs were done. Next the ballast was placed down below: river gravel washed clean (the so-called 'Macao stones'), and then other goods could be loaded.
During the years of direct sailings from the Netherlands, from 1728 to 1734, the cargo's in Canton hired a different factory building each season. After Batavia had taken control, the same building was used every time, but in 1756 the Hoge Regering, irritated that the trade had been taken out of its hands again, terminated the hire of this building. A few years later cargo's sent out from the Netherlands succeeded in hiring this factory building again, and it remained the seat of the Dutch until after the VOC era.8 7
In contrast to the Indian factories the China trade remained of great importance for the VOC after the Fourth Anglo-Dutch War. The China committee made great efforts to send sufficient ships and money to Canton in spite of the critical financial position of the VOC. Even in 1793 three ships were still equipped, one of then, the HERTOG VAN BRUNSWIJK (4755) having to depart without cash. The ship was not to miss the convoy given by a naval squadron, even if the directors had not managed to get together sufficient money for dispatch by the date of departure. It was hoped that the cargo's by using bills of exchange would succeed in freighting the ship in Canton. Four ships returned indeed
86 This is apparent from the account form the 'Generaal Grootboek' of 1779, appendix 7A and Β in De Korte, De jaarlijkse financiëleverantwoording.
87 On the stay in Canton see Jörg, Porcelain, 45-65.

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