Page 52 - Dutch Asiatic Shipping Volume 1
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 ample accommodation for high officials as well as for the ship's officers. They were capable of defending themselves against attacks by privateers and pirates, and in the East they constituted the Company's naval force. During the First and Second Anglo-Dutch Wars various East Indiamen were incorporated in the war fleet, but often to little effect.8
Van Dam's wonder at the many changes in the ships applied equally to another group, the yachts. These too were square stern ships, three-masted and with square sails. They were much used by the Company, particularly during the first half of the seventeenth century. They were usually classified into large and small yachts. The dimensions of the small ones ranged from around 80 to 100 ft, of the large ones from around 120 to 135 ft. They were mostly destined for service in Asiatic waters. After their first or second voyage to Asia they did not return home again. Probably they were of slighter build and without the usual superstructures fore and aft.9 Apart from their dimensions, yachts did not out- wardly differ much from the East Indiamen. The difference between a small East Indiaman and a large yacht has to be looked for mainly in their later function in Asia. During the second half of the seventeenth century the name jacht became much less used and was replaced by that of pinas (pinnace). The last yachts mentioned, as such, in Dutch-Asiatic shipping were the WEST FRIESLAND (2527), CASTOR E N POLLUX (2528) and the SPIERINGSHOEK (2619) of 1722 and 1725.
In 1652 the Heren Zeventien decided on the construction of pinnaces. After the DUIFJE (0002) of 1594 which can probably also be defined as a yacht, this meant the appearance of a new type of square stern ship. A large version (128 ft) and a small one (116 ft) were to be built. It is not clear in what respect the pinnace deviated from the yacht. In the early seventeenth century navy no distinction was made between them. Company sources too, often use either name for the same ship (e.g. 0780, 0900, 1044, 1417 and 1593). V an Dam in 1662 did not differentiate between them. The impression is that the term pinnace superseded that of yacht. At the end of the seventeenth century not only were pinnaces built of 100, 120 and 130 ft, but East Indiamen were described as pinnaces as well. During the eighteenth century the pinnace disappeared in so far as all East Indiamen were adorned with that name.10
The last square stern ship to be mentioned is the fregat (frigate). In 1691 the building of this type was decided upon. The first ones were the MATROOS (1708), the SOLDAAT (1730) and the NOORDGOUW (1720). Only the Amsterdam and Zeeland chambers were to build a small number of frigates, the best known of them being the GEELVINK (1740) of De Vlamingh's voyage of discovery, and the PETER E N PAUL (1787), in the building of which Czar Peter the Great took part in 1697. These frigates are not to be confused with the warships of the same name. They were in fact small yachts or pinnaces, about 100 to 110 ft long, light of wood and built for fast sailing.'11
Fluyts, catbarks and hekboten
So much for the square stern ships, the names of which do not always agree, so that the
8 Van Beylen, Schepen van de Nederlanden, 1 and 98-101; Elias, De vlootbouw, 86, 89, 90; Bruijn andVanEyckvanHeslinga,Muiterij,35-39.
9 Various dimensions of yachts in Van Dam, Beschryvinge, vol. 63, 460-471. It is impossible to ascertain to what extent the navy in switching to yachts and frigates in 1627 and subsequent years (Elias, Devlootbouw, 41-48),influenced theCompany. The VOC'slargeyachtsweremuchlonger at first. The adviesjacht (dispatch boat) mentioned under no. 0935 was of the same type.
10 Van Dam, Beschryvinge, vol. 63, 467, 470 and 498-99; Elias, De vlootbouw, 21-22. 11 Van Dam, Beschryvinge, vol. 63, 475; Schilder, De ontdekkingsreis, 6-9.

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