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An important deity in Newar Buddhism is Namasangiti, the embodiment of
           the Manjushri Namasangiti (“Chanting the Names of Manjushri”) literature.
           The deity is beautifully rendered in a 13th/14th century gilt copper statue with
           inset gems. Manjushri is one of the primordial teachers in the Newar Buddhist
           tradition. His prayers are chanted daily in Nepalese monasteries, and shrines
           are dedicated to him, including that in one of Nepal’s oldest monasteries, the
           Kva Bahal in Patan.  A few examples of Nepalese Namasangiti images are
           published, with some variation in their iconography. 8

           The key iconographic feature of this twelve-armed deity is the pair of hands
           that touches the vase of liquid held in the lower hands. This gesture is
           known as kṣepana or tarpana mudra (“the gesture of sprinkling”). While the
           full significance of this iconography requires further study, it is likely that the
           gesture is meant to signify the abhisekha or initiation ritual which precedes
           one’s introduction to Tantric teachings. One eastern Indian medieval sculpture
           also depicts Namasangiti with twelve arms, holding different attributes in the
           upper hands but with the same central gestures shown here.

           7  Huntington & Bangdell, Circle of Bliss, p.428.
           8  ibid., pp.428-9; Ernst & Waldschmidt, Nepal, London, 1969, pl.34; Bhattacharyya, The Indian
           Buddhist Iconography, Calcutta, 1968,  pp.206-7, fig.151; see also Mallmann, Introduction a
           l’Iconographie du Tantrisme Bouddhique, Paris, 1975, pp.274-5.
           9  Published in Casey, ed., Medieval Sculpture from Eastern India, Livingston NJ, 1985, p.65

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